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Busted at the Border

A crackdown on methamphetamine ingredients in the U.S. has fueled a rush of manufacturers and smugglers in Mexico.

Editor’s note: This is the second in a three-part series examining drug smuggling, human smuggling and human trafficking in the San Diego and Orange County area, and how federal and local law enforcement agencies are grappling with the problems. Part 1:   Part 3:

Drugs flow from Mexico into Southern California in massive quantities -- especially methamphetamine in recent years -- but more than 1,000 new border agents in San Diego County make them scarcer and more expensive, federal officials say.

At the I-5 checkpoint south of San Clemente -- and at five other permanent highway checkpoints -- the Border Patrol stops some cars at random and others that look suspicious, such as vehicles with low carriages indicating extra weight,  said Border Patrol spokesman Jerry Conlin.

If a stopped driver exhibits specific physical cues or answers questions inconsistently, agents funnel the car to a secondary area. Typically, drug dogs are then brought in to sniff around the vehicle. Canines are one of law enforcement’s most powerful weapons against drug smuggling. When a dog signals the presence of drugs—either by sitting up straight and pointing or by pawing at the source of the odor—it constitutes a legally ironclad probable cause to search a vehicle, person or building.

“You teach them the odor recognition, and then you teach them the response,” said Dave Reaver of Adlerhorst K-9 Academy in Riverside County. “Then you vary the location—whether it’s a vehicle or a house.”

Reaver doesn’t train the Border Patrol’s dogs,

With an olfactory capability more than 1 million times stronger than humans, dogs are a near-perfect way of detecting contraband.

Smugglers have been known to seal their stash in plastic and float it inside a vehicle gas tank just to foil the K-9 units. But an experienced dog can detect the scent even when drugs are sealed in plastic and submerged in gasoline.

“The dogs aren’t infallible, but it’s difficult to hide the odor,” Reaver said.

More Agents Mean More Drugs Snagged

Border Patrol drug seizure statistics represent only a fraction of what is captured crossing the border into San Diego County. The agency's numbers don't include  drugs seized as part of Drug Enforcement Administration investigations or multi-agency task forces, like the one that uncovered two elaborate smuggling tunnels under the Tijuana border in November, netting almost 20 tons of marijuana.

But Border Patrol drug hauls have skyrocketed in recent years, which Conlin attributed to a huge increase in the agency’s San Diego resources. The number of agents in the San Diego Sector has increased from 1,500 in 2005 to 2,700 now. And, in December 2011, the agency opened a brand new field office at the I-5 checkpoint, he said.

In fiscal year 2010 -- which runs from October 2009 through September 2010 -- the Border Patrol in San Diego County seized 21,576 pounds of weed, 1,342 pounds of cocaine, 306 pounds of methamphetamine and 501 ounces of heroin.

In fiscal 2011, marijuana seizures in the region more than tripled, to 68,825 pounds.

Meanwhile, cocaine seizures nearly doubled (to 2,504 pounds), meth jumped almost 80 percent (to 548 pounds) and heroin climbed 75 percent (to 878 ounces).

In the first five months of fiscal 2012, fake dashboards, speaker boxes, trunk compartments and other hiding places have yielded similar results. Although pot and cocaine seizures appear to be drifting down (16,716 pounds and 717 pounds, respectively, in the first five months of the fiscal year), meth and heroin are way up.

If the current seizure rates hold, the amount of intercepted methamphetamine will nearly double over last year (to 1,084 pounds), and heroin will rise by about 260 percent (to 2,278 ounces).

The Rise of Mexican Methamphetamine

Gary Hill, DEA assistant special agent-in-charge in the San Diego Sector, said the agency has seen a particular increase in Mexican-made methamphetamine over the past several years because of developments in the manufacturing process and tighter restrictions on meth ingredients in the U.S.

The 2005 Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act clamped down on pseudophedrine, a common cold medicine used to make meth. The act required retailers to lock up over-the-counter medicines containing pseudophedrine and maintain a log of each transaction.

Before that, Caucasian outlaw motorcycle gangs, white power groups and domestic Hispanic gangs manufactured and sold much of the meth consumed in Southern California, according to a study by criminologist Curtis Robinson and other academic literature.

Mexico didn’t really enter the picture because phosphorous, another component in the meth manufacturing process, was tightly restricted in that nation because of its potential use in explosives and incendiary devices, Hill said.

Now, because of U.S. restrictions on pseudophedrine and a new meth-making process that leaves out phosphorous, it’s more economical to manufacture the drug in Mexico, Hill said. So Mexican drug cartels have added meth to their portfolios.

Check Patch.com tomorrow for the final installment of our border crime series. Part 3 investigates human smuggling and trafficking across the border in Southern California, and law enforcement’s efforts to foil it.

John B. Greet May 23, 2012 at 03:15 PM
One of the main reasons there is so much violence on the Mexican side of our border is due to the huge and on-going competition between drug cartels, there, for the ability to service the constant demand for illegal drugs in the US. http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/mexico/drug_trafficking/index.html
Adam Townsend May 23, 2012 at 04:36 PM
Here's a link to a map showing the parts of Mexico which are run by which cartels, disputed territories and shipping routes of drugs. The map in the slideshow is from 2009. This one is updated for 2012: http://geo-mexico.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Drug_routes_2012.jpg
John B. Greet May 23, 2012 at 04:51 PM
Thanks Adam. Here's another map link. I like these maps because they are a little cleaner and are interactive. Note the second tab that shows cartel drug distribution networks in US cities: http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2009/03/22/us/BORDER.html?ref=drugtrafficking
James Schumaker May 23, 2012 at 05:12 PM
Methamphetamine production is extremely vulnerable because there are only a few large industrial-size facilities worldwide that are able to make the precursor chemicals. Shut down the facilities or severely limit their production and the problem is solved. For cocaine and heroin, the problem is more one of demand than supply. Americans are rich, and they want drugs. That's a problem that's not going to go away. There is, however, promising research on vaccines that would block the effect of cocaine and heroin. Both vaccines are moving to human trials, and could be available in the not-too-distant future. Once these vaccines are perfected, convicted users could be vaccinated, and they would eventually lose their desire to use these drugs. Most with addictive personalities would probably move to new drugs, and the effect of many painkillers on them would be nullified, but those are acceptable problems and can be dealt with.
John B. Greet May 23, 2012 at 06:03 PM
On the other hand, legal adults can still be said to own their own bodies and, so, should have every right to pollute themselves with whatever substance they choose, so long as they are not harming or otherwise endangering anyone else in doing so. I disagree with the entire concept of federal drug laws except where they involve federal property or federal employees. Beyond that, the people in each state should decide for themselves whether or not they will choose to legalize drugs and, if so, to what degree. The idea of a "drug vaccination" is an interesting one, but only so long as such a vaccine would be voluntary, and never state-mandated as the result of a criminal conviction for drug use.
John B. Greet May 23, 2012 at 07:29 PM
True dat, Yep. True dat....
Nancy Thompson May 23, 2012 at 11:14 PM
that works if you happen to have medical insurance that will pay for it but as it stands now if you don't have insurance you don't get rehab or anything else, something wrong with that program?
Marc Schroeder May 23, 2012 at 11:27 PM
The only good Tweeker is a dead one
Yeparoo May 23, 2012 at 11:34 PM
Nancy - Great point !! This is a complex issue that will be tough to make progress on. I can speak from experience that when you have a family member that is an addict, they typically don't hold a job with benefits or maintain insurance coverage (surprise, surprise). And even if they have coverage or $help, rehab and counseling goes on for years. Sometimes things never get better. And it's especially bad when they start having little ones. When addicts get hooked on the hard stuff, that's a bad tiger to tame. When that stuff gets it's claws dug in, you're in for a long battle. I'm pretty much a zero tolerance person on the hard core stuff.
Alberto Barrera May 24, 2012 at 12:38 AM
I hear that a huge wave of blue meth is coming in from New Mexico, made by a shady figure going by the name of "Heisenberg".
Peter Schelden (Editor) May 24, 2012 at 01:23 AM
Man, I think that guy used to be my chemistry teacher.
Yeparoo May 24, 2012 at 06:26 AM
Made me look!
Yeparoo May 24, 2012 at 06:59 AM
If you compare the 2010 & 2012 maps, the big difference is the disappearance of the TJ cartel. A few years back TJ had several high profile crimes against elected officials, judges, law enforcement and I believe also clergy. If you noticed Sinaloa has "absorbed" that territory and expanded completely down the peninsula of Baja. Word is Guzmán is FC's favorite. The violence on the east side of Mexico is not only dangerous, but bad PR. Hiilary Clinton went on an extensive pre meeting there in February for next June's G20 Summit to find out: Is it safe? Oh yeah, nothing going on here. Then the following day after Clinton leaves, Guzmán 'almost' gets caught on vacation there. Funny how he gets tipped off just in time to slip the noose. Got to believe the higher elected officials know what's going on. Also heard Sur is happy. Only one cartel, no violence, all police and governors get their cuts. Everyone is happy. http://latino.foxnews.com/latino/news/2012/03/12/mexico-authorities-close-in-on-most-powerful-drug-lord-el-chapo/
Yeparoo May 24, 2012 at 07:12 AM
Meant to say next month, not next June. This article gives the juicier details of the events. The resort he was at is very high end. Seems more looks Bin Laden hiding in plain sight. http://usopenborders.com/2012/03/prostitute-saved-chapo-guzman-from-capture/
Penny Arévalo (Editor) May 24, 2012 at 01:56 PM
SCN, this series is going out to a number of Patches across San Diego and Orange counties. The issues presented appeal to a large audience and are not just San Juan Capistrano-specific.
M May 24, 2012 at 02:03 PM
Interesting article, thanks!
Adam Townsend May 24, 2012 at 03:01 PM
Third article is published: http://sanclemente.patch.com/articles/border-crime-many-immigrants-face-death-or-slavery
Adam Townsend May 24, 2012 at 03:04 PM
Thanks, Penny. Also: 1.) That boat at Dana Point is just one of dozens landing on Orange County beaches over the past couple years, smuggling both drugs and humans, and 2.) The I-5 corridor is a major drug smuggling route. Millions of dollars in dope is confiscated at the I-5 checkpoint south of San Clemente each year, and those checkpoints are open only sporadically. It's safe to say that millions more in drugs that are never caught pass through San Juan Capistrano every year.
Yeparoo May 24, 2012 at 03:25 PM
SCN - it has everything to do with distribution into CA. Guzman is the new Sheriff. Their is still violence, but not anywhere close to the violence of the old TJ cartel or the current gulf cartels south of the Texas boarder. I think the bigger question is have the Governers and President cut a deal with less violent cartels to reduce violence? All one needs to do is look at prohibition to see Capone was much worse for politicians than Kennedy. Oh, and if they want you dead, you are dead. Doesn't matter what side of the boarder you are on. I'll bet Guzmans crew had lunch next to Hillary and she never knew it.

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